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Referencing and Plagiarism

APA 7th Edition

APA is the referencing style commonly used on Psychology Route courses and other social science disciplines.

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. This organisation provides guidelines on writing style as well as referencing for academic writing. Their guidelines can be found in:

Books & E-Books

Authors' surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Book title (Edition). Publisher. URL or https://doi.org/

In-Text Citation (up to 2 authors)

Parenthetical citation: (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020)

Narrative citation: Luna (2020, p. 21) states…*

In-Text Citation (3 or more authors)

Parenthetical citation: (Martin et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: Taylor et al. (2021, Chapter 4, Section 3, para. 2) state… **

Reference List

Lichtenberg, J. D., Lachmann, F. M., & Fosshage, J. L. (2011). Psychoanalysis and motivational systems: A new look. Routledge. http://lib.myilibrary.com/ProductDetail.aspx?id=303727

TIPS! *You need to add page numbers if you are using direct quotations, don’t use page numbers when paraphrasing or summarizing.

** If the ebook doesn’t have page numbers, provide as much information as the reader needs to find locate the material you are using (e.g., chapter number, section, paragraph)

***Do NOT use ‘et al.’ in the reference list, instead provide surnames and initials for up to and including 20 authors. When there are more than 20 authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, insert and ellipsis, and then add the final author’s name.

Chapter/Section in an Edited Book

Author of chapter surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter or section. In Name of editor of book (Ed.), Title of book Edition (Page numbers of chapter/section). Publisher. https://doi.org/ or URL

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation: (Aron et al., 2019)

Narrative citation: As recommended by Aron et al. (2019) …

Reference List

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016

Journal or E-Journal Article

Author surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number (issue or part number), Page range. Available at: URL or https://doi.org/

 

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation: (Grady et al., 2019)

Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019) …

Reference List

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

 

TIP! If the journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference. If it has no DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. If it has no DOI but does have a URL (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Websites

Webpage or website with individual authors

Author surname(s), Initial(s). (Date the page was published/last updated) Title of webpage. Website name. URL

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation: (Horovitz, 2021)

Narrative citation: Horovitz (2021) …

Reference List

Horovitz, B. (2021, October 19). Are you ready to move your aging parent into your home? AARP. https://www.aarp.org/caregiving/home-care/info-2021/caregiving-questions.html

Webpage or website with organisations as authors

Organisation. (Date the page was published/last updated) Title of webpage. Website name. URL

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation: (World Health Organisation, 2018)

Narrative citation: World Health Organisation (2018) …

Reference List

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

TIPS! Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference. When you cannot determine the date of publication, use (n.d.). Include a retrieval date only if the work is unarchived and designed to change over time. Most references do not include retrieval dates. When a retrieval date is needed, use the following format for it: Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://xxxxx

Secondary Referencing

NB. It is important to keep secondary referencing to a minimum and, whenever possible, read and cite the primary source of your information. Only use secondary sources when the original is out of print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not understand.

In-Text Citation

Identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used. For example:

(Rabbit, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

Reference List

Provide an entry for the secondary source that you used. For example:

Lyon, A.R., Lau, A. S., McCauley, E., Vander Stoep, A., & Chorpita, B.F. (2014). A case for modular design: Implications for implementing evidence-based interventions with culturally diverse youth. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(1), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035301

TIP! If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation. For example: Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).

General Tips

Aim for consistency as random mistakes are much more noticeable.

Page Numbers within In-Text Citations

You need to include page numbers only when making a direct quote, not when paraphrasing or summarizing.

  • For a single page, use the abbreviation “p.” (e.g., p. 25, p. S41, p. e221).
  • For multiple pages, use the abbreviation “pp.” and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. 34–36).
  • If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. 67, 72).

To directly quote from written material that doesn’t contain page numbers (e.g., webpages, some ebooks), provide another way of locating the passage (e.g., heading or section name, paragraph number). For example: (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section) (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).

3 or More Authors

    • Use et al. when there are 3 or more authors for your in-text citations.
    • Do NOT use ‘et al.’ in the reference list, instead provide surnames and initials for up to and including 20 authors. When there are more than 20 authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, insert and ellipsis, and then add the final author’s name.

Editions

These are not needed for 1st editions. Include edition statement for any other edition (e.g., 4th ed).

Same author and date

In order to differentiate sources with the same author and date, use lower case letters (in alphabetical order) after the publication date e.g. Department of Health (2014a), Department of Health (2014b) etc.

No author

For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation. For the reference list, if the reference begins with the work’s title; alphabetise the entry by the first significant word of the title (i.e., ignoring the words ‘a’, ‘the’).

APA Style Help Sheets

APA Style Help Sheets

You can download a help sheet including guidance and examples of the most common sources used in assignments by clicking the link below:

For more detailed guidance check Cite Them Right Online or APA website.

The APA also provides guidelines on formatting, including formatting headings, tables and figures, etc. You can download a help sheet on APA formatting by clicking the link below:

When using APA Style, format each reference with a hanging indent, which means that the first line of each reference entry is aligned flush with the left margin and each subsequent line has a hanging indent. The video below explains how to format hanging indents in Word:

Cite Them Right - Quick Links

The links below show you how to do in-text citations and the format for the reference list, using APA 7th Edition (Make sure you select the correct referencing format after clicking on the links below).  

For more referencing examples, take a look at Cite Them Right Online