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Referencing and Plagiarism

UoS Harvard

UoS Harvard is the referencing style used by most courses at University of Suffolk. It follows Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guidelines.

There is both a book and a website which can be used to look up the correct referencing conventions for the sources you intend to use within your work. These can be found by clicking the links below:

Book or E-Book

NB When an e-book looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

Authors' surname(s), Initial(s). (Year) Book title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. OR Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date)

In-Text Citation (up to 3 authors)

Baughan and Smith (2013, p. 27) state that…

McGrath (2017, loc 876) explored… *

In-Text Citation (4 or more authors)

This was proved by Petit et al. (2020, pp. 21-23) ...

Reference List

Baughan, J.V. and Smith, A. (2013) Compassion, caring and communication: skills for nursing practice. 2nd edn. Harlow: Pearson.

McGrath, J. (2017) Naming adult autism: culture, science, identity. Available at: (Accessed: August 23, 2022).

Petit, V. et al. (2020) The anthropological demography of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

TIP! You need to add page numbers if you are quoting OR paraphrasing ideas from a specific page or pages to help the reader find the original text. *On some personal electronic devices, specific e-book pagination details may not be available, so use the information you do have, such as loc, %, chapter/page/paragraph – for example, (Richards, 2012, 67%), (Winters, 2011, ch. 4, p. 12).

Chapter in an Edited Work

Author of chapter surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of chapter or section’, in Initial. Surname (ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Page range.

In-Text Citation

As recommended by Karim, Tretten and Kumar (2018, p. 562) ...

Reference List

Karim, R., Tretten, T. and Kumar, U. (2018) ‘eMaintenance’, in M. Pecht and M. Kang (eds) Prognostics and health management of electronics: fundamentals, machine learning, and the internet of things. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 559–587.

TIP! You need to add page numbers if you are quoting OR paraphrasing ideas from a specific page or pages to help the reader find the original text.

Journal or E-Journal Article

Author surname(s), Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’, Journal Name, volume number (issue or part number), page range (if available). Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date)

In-Text Citation

An example cited by Dutta and Marjit (2016, pp. 120-121) … 

Reference List

Dutta, M. and Marjit, S. (2016) ‘Intra-country technology transfer’, Indian Economic Review, 51(1/2), pp. 117–127. Available at: (Accessed: 27 May 2021). 

TIP! If viewing the article online, include the DOI if available OR URL + accessed date (Note: the access date is only included when using URL, NOT when using DOI).

TIP! If page numbers are unavailable - e.g., if you are using a source that is only available in an online format with no PDF, and if this is usual in your discipline - then they are simply omitted.

Web Pages

Author surname(s)/Organisation(s), Initial(s). (Year) Title. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-Text Citation

According to the National Health Service (2019)…

Reference List

National Health Service (2019) Dehydration. Available at: (Accessed: 6 September 2019).

TIP! If there is no obvious date of publication/revision, use (no date) but question how reliable the information might be. Note: You might want to check the bottom of the web page for a copyright date.

Secondary Referencing Guidance

TIP! It is important to keep secondary referencing to a minimum and, whenever possible, read and cite the primary source of your information.

Use the phrase ‘quoted in’ if the author of the secondary source is directly quoting

Burnard (2009, quoted in Murray, 2013, p. 82) argues that health professionals dismiss ...

Use the phrase ‘cited in’ if the author of the secondary source is paraphrasing or summarising from the primary source

Health professionals dismiss the idea that all humans may be cloned (Burnard, 2009, cited in Murray, 2013, p. 82).

NB Remember to use double quotation marks if YOU are directly quoting from the secondary source.

Reference list

Murray, T. G. (2013) Retinoblastoma: clinical advances and emerging treatment strategies. Available at:

NB The book by Murray should be included in the reference list because you have read it. Do not include the work by Burnard because you have not read it.

General Tips

Aim for consistency as random mistakes are much more noticeable.

  • Page Numbers within In-Text Citations
    • You need to include page numbers when making a direct quote, or when you are paraphrasing a specific idea or piece of information that can be found on a particular page or set of pages. Sometimes you may find that you are summarising an entire article or discussing a theme that runs through the whole of your source, in this case, you would not need page numbers.
  • 4 or More Authors
    • Use et al. when there are over 3 authors (4 or more) for your in-text citations and reference list. For example:
      • In-text citation

Smith et al. (2012, p. 88) OR (Smith et al., 2012, p. 88)

      • Reference list

Smith, M. et al. (2012)

  • Editions
    • These are not needed for 1st editions. Include edition statement for any other edition e.g. 2nd edn. including revised editions e.g. 3rd rev. edn.
  • Direct Quotations and In-Text Citations
    • These are included in your word count.
    • Your reference list is not included in the word count.
  • Same Author and Date
    • In order to differentiate sources with the same author and date, use lower case letters (in alphabetical order) after the publication date e.g. Department of Health (2014a), Department of Health (2014b) etc.

UoS Harvard Help Sheet

You can download a help sheet including guidance and examples of the most common sources used in assignments by clicking the links below:

For more detailed guidance check Cite Them Right Online

In-text citations FAQs

The format for in-text citations is:
(Author, Date, Page)

  • Author's or editor's surname. This could be an organization, e.g. BBC
  • Year of publication
  • Page number(s)
  • Enclose the whole citation in round brackets unless the author is the subject of the sentence, e.g. Smith (2010, p.13) argues that...


Q. When do I need to include page numbers?
A. You need to include page numbers in your in-text citations when quoting directly from a source, or when you are paraphrasing a specific idea or piece of information which can be found on a particular page or set of pages. You do not need page numbers in your in-text citations if you are summarising an entire article or discussing a theme which runs through the whole of your source.


​Q. What if there is more than one author?
A. For two or three authors you should include their names in the in citation. However, for four or more authors you should list the first name followed by et al. in italics, e.g.
Davies and Garaicoa (2009, p. 9) or (Harrison, Jakeman and Paterson, 2012, pp. 43-4) or (Coffin et al., 2003, p. 21)


Q. What if there is no author? 
A. If you cannot identify the name of an author/organisation, then use the title of the work in italics e.g. 
In a recent study (Health of the nation, 2008, p. 94), statistics showed...


Q. What if I cannot find a year of publication?
A. If you cannot identify a date of publication you should replace year with 'no date' e.g.
English Heritage (no date) have used this conservation technique...


Q. What if I have several sources by the same author from the same year?
A. In order to distinguish between sources, you should use lower case letters in alphabetical order after the date:
...the Department of Health (2015a, p.5) promote this, although they acknowledge that the challenges in service delivery have not yet been addressed by the Government (Department of Health, 2015b, p. 22).
N.B. You will also need to include the lower case letters in your reference list.


Q. Can I cite more than one source at the same time?
A. You may find that you want to refer to two or more sources in relation to a particular point you are making. In this instance, you should separate your sources by using a semi-colon. You should list them in chronological order starting with the earliest, e.g.
(Swan and Smith, 2001, p. 5; Daniels et al., 2006, p. 88; BFI, 2013)


Q. How do I cite a webpage without an author or title?
A. If no author/organisation and no title are identifiable, then you can include the webpage URL instead e.g.
(, no date) 

N.B. If a webpage has no author or title, it is unlikely to be suitable for academic work.


Q. Can I use the Harvard reference given in a "Cite It" option (e.g. "Cite" in Discovery)?
A.  Any Harvard citation given by Discovery (or any other source e.g. a database) may not conform with the University of Suffolk Harvard guidance, so if you do cut and paste a citation into your work, you will have to tweak it according to the University of Suffolk standard. Another option would be to use RefWorks to create your reference list, but again you may have to amend the imported reference.


Q. What is a DOI number?

A. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. Most journal articles that are available online have a unique DOI. The DOI is one of the most reliable ways of identifying a journal article. If the article you are referencing has a DOI number, then you should include it in the reference list:.

Nobel, N. and Bradley, L. (2019) ‘Counseling twins: a family counseling issue’, The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 27(3), pp. 325-329. Available at:


Still not found an answer to your question? See Cite Them Right's 'Common questions on referencing' page.

Direct quotations FAQs

  • A short quotation (no more than 3 lines) may be incorporated into the main body of the text in quotation marks. The author should be acknowledged, in you own words or within the in-text citation. For example:

  • A longer quotation (more than 3 lines) should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. Indented quotations should not have quotations marks, but you must still acknowledge the author. For example:

  • If you miss words from the quotation (ellipsis), you should indicate this using 3 dots in square brackets to represent the missing words. For example:
Bryson (2004, p. 156) commented that 'you need to illustrate the idea [...] as a land of opportunity.'

You can either use single or double quotation marks, just make sure to be consistent. However, Turnitin recognises double quotation marks, but not single ones - This is why you might prefer to use double quotation marks.

Citing secondary sources FAQs

This is a source which is itself referred to in another work. However, it is important that, whenever possible you cite and reference the primary source of your information.

  • Make reference to both sources in the text (e.g., Harvey (2015, quoted in Lewis, 2018, p.86) provides an excellent survey...)
  • Give the exact page number to which you are making the reference.
  • Use the phrase 'quoted in' or 'cited in' depending on whether the author of the secondary source is directly quoting or summarising from the primary source.
  • You should only include the secondary source in your reference list. For example:
Murray, T. G. (2013) Retinoblastoma: clinical advances and emerging treatment strategies. Available at: 10.2217/9781780842042. 


The links below show you how to do in-text citations and the format for the reference list, using UOS Harvard (Make sure you select the correct referencing format after clicking on the links below).  

For more referencing examples, take a look at Cite Them Right Online

Printed books


Journal articles

Webpages (with individual authors)

Webpages (with organisations as authors)

Videos / YouTube

Newspaper articles