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Referencing and Plagiarism

MHRA

The MHRA Style Guide is an essential reference for scholars, students and editors in the Modern Humanities. This is the preferred referencing style for citations and bibliographies for History students, which uses footnotes marked by superscript numbers in the text. MHRA stands for Modern Humanities Research Association. Their guidelines can be found in:

General conventions

Citing sources in your text - Footnotes

  • Instead of naming authors in the text, numbers are used to denote citations. These numbers in the text are linked to a full reference in footnotes or endnotes and in your bibliography. TIP! If you use Microsoft Word to write your MHRA style assignment, these directions from Microsoft on how to insert footnotes may be useful. 
  • Cited publications are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text. They are usually identified by a superscript number, for example ‘Thomas corrected this error.¹’
  • Note that the first time you cite a source, you should give full details in the footnote or endnote. Subsequent entries to the same source can be abbreviated to author's surname and the first few words of the title, plus a page number if you are citing a specific part of the text, giving you a short citation. For example: Worsley, Classical Architecture, p. 25.

Bibliography

  • List works in alphabetical order by surname of the first author.
  • Names are given as surname, forename for the first author, but subsequent authors and editors are given as forename, surname. For example: Williams, Edith, Jane Thompson and Claire Hopper
  • Sources without an author are listed by title in the alphabetical list.
  • References in your bibliography do not end with a full stop
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of each reference in the bibliography but not in footnotes
  • As well as footnotes or endnotes, you should list all your sources, including those you have read but not cited, in the bibliography.

NB. In the footnotes, author names should be forename followed by surname – for example, Francis Wheen. In the bibliography, author names should be surname followed by forename – for example, Wheen, Francis

If there are four or more authors, give the name of the first author, followed by ‘and others’.

If two (or more) consecutive references are from the same source, then the second (or others) is cited ibid. Capitalise ibid. if used at the beginning of a note.

Books and e-books

Printed books

Author, Title, Edition (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication)

Example:

Footnote

1. 

Giles Worsley, Classical Architecture in Britain: The Heroic Age (London: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1995), p. 47.

Bibliography

Worsley, Giles, Classical Architecture in Britain: The Heroic Age (London: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1995)

E-books

Author, Title (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), <DOI> or ebook supplier/collection or <URL> [accessed date]

Example:

Footnote

1. 

Michael Shapland, Anglo-Saxon Towers of Lordship (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), p. 47, <https://doi.org/10.1093/ oso/9780198809463.001.0001>

Bibliography

Shapland, Michael, Anglo-Saxon Towers of Lordship (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019) <https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198809463.001.0001>

NB. The access date is only included when using URL, NOT when using DOI.

 Page numbers are only included in footnotes, NOT in the bibliography.

Chapters or sections in edited books

Author, 'Title of chapter/section', in Title of book, ed. by Name of editor of book (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), pp. Page numbers of chapter/section (p. page number).

Example:

Footnote

  1. Alexandrina Buchanan, 'Interpretations of Medieval Architecture', in Gothic Architecture and Its Meanings 1550–1830, ed. by Michael Hall (Reading: Spire Books, 2002), pp. 27–52 (p. 47).

Bibliography

Buchanan, Alexandrina, 'Interpretations of Medieval Architecture', in Gothic Architecture and Its Meanings 1550–1830, ed. by Michael Hall (Reading: Spire Books, 2002), pp. 27–52

Journal articles

Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume number. Issue number (Year of publication), Page numbers of article, <URL> [accessed date] OR <DOI>.

Example:

Footnote

1

S. Lang, 'The Principles of the Gothic Revival in England', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 25.4 (1966), 240–67 (p. 244) <http://www.jstor.org/stable/988353> [accessed 21 December 2018].

Bibliography

Lang, S., 'The Principles of the Gothic Revival in England', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 25.4 (1966), 240–67 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/988353> [accessed 21 December 2018]

NB. When using URL, include accessed date, NOT when using DOI. 

Newspaper and magazine articles

Author, 'Title of Article', Title of Newspaper/Magazine, day Month year, p.

Example:

Footnote

  1. Dan Hyde, 'Parents Funding Adult Offspring’s Holidays', Daily Telegraph, 14 September 2015, p. 2.

Bibliography

Hyde, Dan, 'Parents Funding Adult Offspring’s Holidays', Daily Telegraph, 14 September 2015, p. 2

Manuscripts in archives

Place, Name of archive, Reference number Description of document.

Example:

Footnote

  1. London, The National Archives, Public Record Office, PROB 3/42/93 Inventory of Elizabeth Bennett of Deptford, 10 November 1743.

Bibliography

London, The National Archives, Public Record Office, PROB 3/42/93 Inventory of Elizabeth Bennett of Deptford, 10 November 1743

Websites

Author/Organisation, Title of internet site (Year that the site was published/last updated) <URL> [accessed date].

Example:

Footnote

  1. Salvatore Ciro Nappo, Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (2012) <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/pompeii_rediscovery_01.shtml> [accessed 21 December 2018].

Bibliography

Nappo, Salvatore Ciro, Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (2012) <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/pompeii_rediscovery_01.shtml> [accessed 21 December 2018]

NB. For web pages where no author can be identified, you should use the web page's title.

MHRA Help Sheet

You can download a help sheet including guidance and examples of the most common sources used in assignments by clicking the link below:

For more detailed guidance check Cite Them Right Online or the MHRA Style Guide Online.

 

The links below show you how to do in-text citations and the format for the reference list, using MHRA (Make sure you select the correct referencing format after clicking on the links below).  

For more referencing examples, take a look at Cite Them Right Online