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Referencing and Plagiarism

UOS Harvard 

Most courses at Suffolk will use the UOS Harvard style of referencing.

Detailed help - Cite Them Right Online

FAQS - In-Text citations, Direct Quotations & Secondary Sources

In-text citations FAQs

The format for in-text citations is:
(Author, Date, Page)

  • Author's or editor's surname. This could be an organization, e.g. BBC
  • Year of publication
  • Page number(s)
  • Enclose the whole citation in round brackets unless the author is the subject of the sentence, e.g. Smith (2010, p.13) argues that...


Q. When do I need to include page numbers?
A. You need to include page numbers in your in-text citations when quoting directly from a source, or when you are paraphrasing a specific idea or piece of information which can be found on a particular page or set of pages. You do not need page numbers in your in-text citations if you are summarising an entire article or discussing a theme which runs though the whole of your source.


​Q. What if there is more than one author?
A. For two or three authors you should include their names in the in citation. However, for four or more authors you should list the first name followed by et al. in italics, e.g.
Davies and Garaicoa (2009, p. 9) or (Harrison, Jakeman and Paterson, 2012, pp. 43-4) or (Coffin et al., 2003, p. 21)


Q. What if there is no author? 
A. If you cannot identify the name of an author/editor, then use the title of the work in italics e.g. 
In a recent study (Health of the nation, 2008, p. 94), statistics showed...


Q. What if I cannot find a year of publication?
A. If you cannot identify a date of publication you should replace year with 'no date' e.g.
English Heritage (no date) have used this conservation technique...


Q. What if I have several sources by the same author from the same year?
A. In order to distinguish between sources, you should use lower case letters in alphabetical order after the date:
...the Department of Health (2015a, p.5) promote this, although they acknowledge that the challenges in service delivery have not yet been addressed by the Government (Department of Health, 2015b, p. 22).
N.B. You will also need to include the lower case letters in your reference list.


Q. Can I cite more than one source at the same time?
A. You may find that you want to refer to two or more sources in relation to a particular point you are making. In this instance, you should separate your sources by using a semi-colon. You should list them in chronological order starting with the earliest, e.g.
(Swan and Smith, 2001, p. 5; Daniels et al., 2006, p. 88; BFI, 2013)


Q. How do I cite a webpage without an author or title?
A. If no author and no title are identifiable, then you can include the webpage URL instead e.g.
(, no date)


Q. Can I use the Harvard reference given in a "Cite It" option (e.g. "Cite this item" in Summon)?
A.  Any Harvard citation given by Summon (or any other source e.g. a database) may not conform with the University of Suffolk Harvard guidance, so if you do cut and paste a citation into your work, you will have to tweak it according to the University of Suffolk standard. Another option would be to use RefWorks to create your reference list, but again you may have to amend the imported reference.


Q. What is a DOI number?

A. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. Most journal articles that are available online have a unique DOI. The DOI is one of the most reliable ways of identifying a journal article. If the article you are referencing has a DOI number, then you should include it in the reference list:.

Nobel, N. and Bradley, L. (2019) ‘Counseling twins: a family counseling issue’, The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 27(3), pp. 325-329. doi:10.1177/1066480719852989.


Still not found an answer to your question? See Cite Them Right's 'Common questions on referencing' page.

Direct quotations FAQs

  • A short quotation (no more than 3 lines) may be incorporated into the main body of the text in quotation marks. The author should be acknowledged, in you own words or within the in-text citation..
  • A longer quotation (more than 3 lines) should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. Indented quotations should not have quotations marks, but you must still acknowledge the author.
  • If you miss words from the quotation (ellipsis), you should indicate this using 3 dots in square brackets to represent the missing words.

Bryson (2004, p. 156) commented that 'you need to illustrate the idea [...] as a land of opportunity.'

Citing secondary sources FAQs

This is a source which is itself referred to in another work. 

  • Make reference to both sources in the text
  • Give the exact page number to which you are making the reference
  • You should only reference the book by Boddy in your reference list (see example below)

It has been argued that 'No one person, system, or technique will make a company marketing oriented' (Michaels, 1982, cited in Boddy, 2002, p. 203).

1:1 bookable appointments can be made with your Academic Skills Advisers for your subject area.

Students from Ipswich can book two appointments per week (if you are a student from the Learning Network, please contact your library) - 

  • up to 1 hour with an Academic Skills Advisor

Appointments are scheduled in 30 minute slots.  

Schedule an Appointment

Cite Them Right - Quick Links

The links below show you how to do in-text citations and the format for the reference list, using UOS Harvard (Make sure you select the correct referencing format after clicking on the links below).  

For more referencing examples, take a look at Cite Them Right Online

Printed books


Journal articles

Webpages (with individual authors)

Webpages (with organisations as authors)

Videos / YouTube

Newspaper articles