The format for in-text citations is:
(Author, Date, Page)
Q. When do I need to include page numbers?
A. You need to include page numbers in your in-text citations when quoting directly from a source, or when you are paraphrasing a specific idea or piece of information which can be found on a particular page or set of pages. You do not need page numbers in your in-text citations if you are summarising an entire article or discussing a theme which runs though the whole of your source.
Q. What if there is more than one author?
A. For two or three authors you should include their names in the in citation, however for four or more authors you should list the first name followed by et al. in italics, e.g.
Davies and Garaicoa (2009, p. 9) or (Harrison, Jakeman and Paterson, 2012, pp. 43-4) or (Coffin et al., 2003, p. 21)
Q. What if there is no author?
A. If you cannot identify the name of an author/editor, then use the title of the work in italics e.g.
In a recent study (Health of the nation, 2008, p. 94), statistics showed...
Q. What if I cannot find a year of publication?
A. If you cannot identify a date of publication you should replace year with 'no date' e.g.
English Heritage (no date) have used this conservation technique...
Q. What if I have several sources by the same author from the same year?
A. In order to distinguish between sources, you should use lower case letters in alphabetical order after the date, e.g
...the Department of Health (2015a, p.5) promote this, although they acknowledge that the challenges in service delivery have not yet been addressed by the Government (Department of Health, 2015b, p. 22).
N.B. You will also need to include the lower case letters in your reference list.
Q. Can I cite more than one source at the same time?
A. You may find that you want to refer to two or more sources in relation to a particular point you are making. In this instance, you should separate your sources by using a semi-colon. You should list them in chronological order starting with the earliest, e.g.
(Swan and Smith, 2001, p. 5; Daniels et al., 2006, p. 88; BFI, 2013)
Q. How do I cite a webpage without an author or title?
A. If no author and no title are identifiable, then you can include the webpage URL instead e.g.
(http://www.tate.org/archives/public-records, no date)
Q. Can I use the Harvard reference given in a "Cite It" option (e.g. "Cite this item" in Summon)?
A. Any Harvard citation given by Summon (or any other source e.g. a database) may not conform with the University of Suffolk Harvard guidance, so if you do cut and paste a citation into your work, you will have to tweak it according to the University of Suffolk standard. Another option would be to use RefWorks to create your reference list, but again you may have to amend the imported reference.
Q. What is a DOI number?
A. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. Most journal articles that are available online have a unique DOI. The DOI is one of the most reliable ways of identifying a journal article. If the article your are referencing has a DOI number, then you should include it in the reference list, e.g.
Nobel, N. and Bradley, L. (2019) ‘Counseling twins: a family counseling issue’, The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 27(3), pp. 325-329. doi:10.1177/1066480719852989.
Bryson (2004, p. 156) commented that 'you need to illustrate the idea [...] as a land of opportunity.'
This is a source which is itself referred to in another work.
It has been argued that 'No one person, system, or technique will make a company marketing oriented' (Michaels, 1982, cited in Boddy, 2002, p. 203).
1:1 bookable appointments can be made with your Academic Skills Advisers for your subject area.
Students from Ipswich can book two appointments per week (if you are a student from the Learning Network, please contact your library) -
Appointments are scheduled in 30 minute slots.
The links below show you how to do in-text citations and the format for the reference list, using UOS Harvard ().
For more referencing examples, take a look at Cite Them Right Online