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Internal Guide: Referencing - Harvard

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UCS Harvard style

University of Suffolk Harvard Style

The preferred referencing style for Computer Games Design is University of Suffolk Harvard.

Learning Services at University of Suffolk often runs workshops on the principles of using the University of Suffolk Harvard referencing style,
but you can also schedule a one-to-one appointment with either your Academic Skills Advisor or Academic Liaison Librarian.  
Advice can also be obtained from Library staff at each of the University of Suffolk centres.

In-Text citations, Direct Quotations & Secondary Sources

In-text citations.

The general rule for in-text citations - for print and electronic resources

  • Authors or Editor's surname. this includes the names of corporate authors.
  • Year of publication
  • Page number(s)
  • Enclose the citation in round brackets

Exceptions

  • No author: if you do not know the name of the author, use the title of the work in place of the author's name.
  • Multiple authors: give the first author's name and then use 'et al' - meaning and other.
  • No date: if you do not know the date of the work, and you can find nothing to sugest a date, use the words 'no date'.
  • Where a theme runs through the whole work: do not include pages

Bilingual children do not need tightly-structured or special writing experiences in order to develop as writers (Browne, 2001, p. 165)

In a recent study (Health of the nation, 2008, p. 94), statistics showed....

That Selbourne was a place of some distinction(White, no date, p. 98).

According to James et al. (1993, pp. 43-59)

Direct quotations

  • If the quotation is no more than 3 lines, it may be incorporated into the main body of the text in quotation marks, and acknowledge the author
  • If the quotation is more than 3 lines it should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. You do not need to use quotation marks, but must still acknowledge the author.
  • If you miss words from the quotation (ellipsis), you should indicate this using 3 dots to represent the missing words.

Bryson (2004, p.156) commented that "if you need to illustrate the idea...as a land of opportunity."

Citing secondary sources

This is a source which is itself referred to in another work. 

  • Make reference to both sources in the text
  • Give the exact page number on which you are making the reference

"No one person, system, or technique will make a company marketing oriented" (Michaels, 1982, cited in Boddy, 2002, p. 203).

Cite Them Right

The principles for laying out your citations and references are found in the following text:

Managing Information Resources

RefWorks enables you to collect all your references in one place, together with any other files such as full-text pdfs, and then create citations and full references for any assignment, according to the required reference styles. This resource is available online and can be used anywhere.

Additional information is available under the Referencing tab

Reference List Examples

Books by one or more author or editor

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below:

  • Author / editor
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edition of the book (if given and not the first)
  • Place of publication: Publisher

Single author

Shephard, A. (2009) Gender and change: agency, chronology and periodisation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Multiple authors - all authors must be listed in the reference list. Use 'and' before the last author.

George, J. M. and Jones, G. R. (2002) Organizational behaviour. 3rd edn. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Note: if the authors of the work are corporate authors, they should be listed in exactly the same way.

Single editors

McCalman, I. (ed.) (2001) An Oxford companion to the Romantic Age: British culture 1776-1832. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Multiple editors - all editors must be listed in the reference list. Use 'and' before the last author.

Wolfendale, S. and Einzig, H. (eds) (1999) Parenting education and support: new opportunities. London: David Fulton.

Book sections or chapters

 Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author of the chapter/section (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of chapter/section (in single quotation marks)
  • 'in' plus author/editor of book
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Page reference (using p. for single pages and pp. for multiple pages)

Kim, H. S. (1989) 'Theoretical thinking in nursing: problems and prospects' in Akinsanya, J. A. (ed.) Models of nursing. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 106-122

Referencing a secondary source

A secondary source is a reference you make the ideas of a person which have then been cited in a second work. For example:

"No one person, system or technique will make a company marketing oriented" (Michaels, 1982, cited in Boddy, 2002, p. 203)

As the work you have actually read is the book by D Boddy, this should be referenced as:

Boddy, D. (2002) Management: an introduction. 2nd edn. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Journal articles by one or more authors

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking word such as and, of, the, for)
  • Issue information, that is, volume(unbracketed) and, where applicable,
    part number, month or season (all in round brackets)
  • Page reference (using p. for single pages and pp. for multiple pages)

Single author

Cunningham, M. (1999) 'Saying sorry: the politics of apology', Political Quarterly 70 (30) pp. 85-93

Multiple authors - all authors must be listed in the reference list. Use 'and' before the last author.

Berry, M. J. and Vishnick, C. (1994) 'Counselling practice', Nursing Standard 9 (9) pp. 33-36

Web pages

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author / Editor
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets). If there is no year include the year you accessed the site
  • Title of web page (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Web page with a personal author or corporate author

Race, P. (2008) Counselling education: earning your counselling degree. Available at: http://www.phil-race.com/downloads.html (Accessed: 23 July 2009).

Web page with no author

Scottish castles photo library (2009) Available at: http://www.rampantscotland.com/castles/blcastles_index.htm (Accessed 23 July 2009)


Online images

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author or Photographer or Illustrator
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of image (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Goldberg, J. (2008) Prized Possession, Democratic Republic of Congo. Available at http://www.pacemaqill.com/Goldberg.html (accessed: 20 June 2011).


Medical ImagesCitation order

Make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Image title (in italics)
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Medium (in square brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • Accessed/Downloaded: date (in round brackets)

Anatomy of the heart (2008) [Illustration]. Available at: http://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Thorax-Abdomen-Pelvis/Heart-pictures (Accessed 11 July 2013).


Artwork in Galleries or museums, published online

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author or Artist's name
  • Year of the original image (in round brackets). If no date use (n.d.)
  • Title of the image or a description (in italics)
  • The medium the work was made in (see full listing below)(in square brackets)
  • Name of the collection (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Medium types

  • Ceramic
  • Chart
  • Diagram
  • Drawing
  • Etching
  • Illustration
  • Linocut
  • Lithograph
  • Map
  • Online image
  • Painting
  • Photograph
  • Sculpture
  • Table
  • Woodcut
  • Watercolour

Caro, A. (1965) Yellow swing [Online image]. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?cgroupid=99999961&workid=1993&searchid=11635 (Accessed: 27 August 2010).


Television programmes viewed on the internet

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of episode (in inverted commas). If not known use the programme title
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme / series (in italics)
  • Series and episode number, if available
  • Name of channel
  • Day / month of transmission
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date)

'Made in Britain' (2011) Made in Britain, episode 1, BBC2 Television, 20 June. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/60125v5h/Made_in_Britain_Episode_1/ (Accessed: 21 June, 2011).


Radio programmes heard on the internet

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of original transmission (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • Day and month of original transmission
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Wimsey - Unnatural Death. Vera Findlater (2011) BBC Radio 4, 21 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode6007jvm7/Wimsey_Unnatural_Death_Vera_Findlater/ (Accessed: 21 June 2011).


Podcasts

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author or presenter
  • Year the site was published / last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of the podcast in inverted commas 
  • [Podcast]
  • Day and month of the posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Bern Leckie (2008) 'Living a chilled life - the big picture', Chill [Podcast]. 4 August. Available at: http://www.helpmechill.com/ (Accessed 29 October 2009). 


Films on YouTube

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Name of the person posting the film / programme
  • Year of posting (in round brackets)
  • Title of the film or video (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Mcircque (2007) Algeria hula hoops, cirque du soleil. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztXmzMvSXZ0&feature=related (Accessed: 29 October 2009).


Electronic discussion groups or bulletin boards

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author of message
  • Year of message (in round brackets)
  • Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)
  • Discussion group or bulletin board (in italics)
  • Date posted: day/month
  • Available email: email address

MacKay, D. M. (2012) 'Best time of year to launch a LibQUAL+ survey', UK LibQual+ Interest Group, 2 August. Available email: LIBQUAL-UK@JISCMAIL.AC.UK


Computer programs and games

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author (if given)
  • Date (if given)
  • Title of program (in italics and capitalise initial letters)
  • Version (in round brackets) - only applicable for computer programs
  • [Computer program/game]
  • Availability, that is, distributor, address, order number (if given)

If downloaded from the internet include:
  • URL
  • (Download: date)

Sanders, B. and Williams, B. (2001) Java in 2 semesters (Version 2) [Computer program]. Microsoft, New York.

Blizzard Entertainment (2007) World of Warcraft [Computer game]. Available at: http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/games/wow (Downloaded 13 July 2013). 


Tutor notes on a VLE

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author or tutor
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of item (in single quotation marks)
  • Name of academic module (in italics)
  • Available at: URL of VLE
  • (Accessed: date)

Smith, J. (2010) 'Lecture 4: key concepts'. Research methods. Available at: http://my.ucs.ac.uk (Accessed 21 May 2010).


PowerPoint

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author or tutor
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of presentation (in 'single' quotation marks)
  • [PowerPoint presentation].
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Available at: Learn University of Suffolk URL
  • Accessed: date (in round brackets)

Smith, M. (2013) 'History of the world' [PowerPoint presentation]. IMD-123: World History. Available at: https://learn.ucs.ac.uk (Accessed: 13 July 2013).

Newspaper articles

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of the article (in inverted commas)
  • Title of the newspaper in italics
  • Day and month of the article
  • Page number

Ward, D. (2006) 'Criticism of hospital plan to treat animals', The Guardian, 30 October, p.5

No Author

The Guardian (2012) 'Bank accounts', 14 June, p. 7.

UK Statutes / Acts of Parliament - post 1963

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of act, year and chapter number (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • Accessed: (in round brackets)


Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, c.22. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/37/contents (Accessed: 11 July 2013).


UK Statutes / Acts of Parliament - pre 1963

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Short title of the Act and year (in italics)
  • Year of Sovereign's reign - the reignal  year, name of the sovereign and chapter number (in round brackets)
  • Title of collection (in italics)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Edition (only include if not the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c.1). The Statutes (1950) 3rd edn. London: HMSO.


Statutory Instruments

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Name / title, including year (in italics)
  • SI year and number (in round brackets) 


The control of substances hazardous to health regulations 1988. (SI 1988/1657)


Bills (House of Commons and House of Lords)

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Parliament. House of Commons / Lords
  • Year of publication (in round brackets) 
  • Title (in italics)
  • Bill number (in round brackets)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


If viewed online include:

  • Available at: URL
  • Accessed: (in round brackets)

Parliament. House of Commons (1999) Transport Bill (Bills 1999-2000 8). London: The Stationery Office.


Parliamentary papers

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Parliament. House of commons / Lords
  • Year of publication (in round brackets) 
  • Title (in italics)
  • Paper number (in round brackets)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


Parliament. House of Lords (2011) No vaccine, no cure: HIV and Aids in the United Kingdom. (HL 2011-2012 (188)). Norwich: The Stationery Office.


Command papers (including Green and White papers)

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Name of committee or royal commission
  • Year of publication (in round brackets) 
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Paper number (in round brackets)


Chief Secretary to the Treasury (2003) Every Child Matters. Norwich: The Stationery Office (Cm. 5860).


Government reports

Citation order - make sure you use all punctuation marks in the example below  

  • Name of Government Department
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of report. (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series - if applicable (in round brackets)

If viewed online:

  • Name of Government Department
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • Accessed: (in round brackets)


Department for Education (2008) Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage: Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for children from birth to five. Nottingham: Department for children, schools and families.

Department for Education (2008) Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage: Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for children from birth to five. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/eyfs_practiceguid_0026608.pdf (Accessed 11 July 2013).

Theses & Dissertations

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author
  • Year of submission (in round brackets)
  • Title of the thesis or dissertation (in italics)
  • Degree statement
  • Name of awarding institution


Sign, N. (2004) The reorganisation of secondary education in Suffolk. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of East Anglia.


British Standards

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author / name of institution
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • British Standard number: Title of standard (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


British Standards Institution (2000) BS ISO/IEC-17799: Information technology - code of practice for information security management. London: British Standards Institution.

Online - British Standards Institution (2009) BS6375-1: Performance of windows and doors: classification for weathertightness and guidance on selection and specification. StandardsUK.com [Online] Available at: http://www.standardsuk.com (Accessed: 23 June 2009).


Technical & research reports

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author(s)
  • Year of the report (in round brackets)
  • Title of the report (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


Woodward, E. J. (1981) Case studies of the corrosion of reinforcement concrete structures. Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Authority.


Whole conference proceedings

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Authors(s) or Editor(s) (remembering to add (ed.) or (eds.) )
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Name of the conference (in italics)
  • Location of the conference
  • Date of the conference (as given on the title page)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


Lonsdale, R. (ed.) (1998) Writing development in higher education: perspectives in theory and practice. Aberystwyth, 8-9 April 1997. Aberystwyth: University of Wales.


Conference papers

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author(s) of paper
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper (in inverted commas)
  • Title and subtitle of conference (in italics)
  • Location and date of conference
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Page references


Silver, K. (1991) 'Electronic mail: the new way to communicate' 9th international online information meeting. London 3-5 December 1990. Oxford: Learned Information, pp. 323-330

Onlline - Legg, K. (2007) 'Visual study of the Masai through digital photography'. Annual meeting of International Communication Association. San Francisco 23 May. All Academic Inc. Available at: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p172322_index.html (Accessed: 3 December 2009).


Annual Reports

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Corporate author
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Full title of report (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher


Marks and Spencer (2004) The way forward: annual report 2003-2004. London: Marks and Spencer

Online - Marks and Spencer (2004) The way forward: annual report 2003-2004. [Online] Available at http://annualreport.amrksandspencer.com/ (Accessed: 4 December 2009).


Reviews

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Name of reviewer
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in inverted commas)
  • Review of.....
  • Identification of the work reviewed (in italics)
  • Author / director of the work being reviewed
  • Publication carrying the review (in italics)
  • Date (day - month)
  • Page reference


Clee, N. (2006) 'Another loner of the run'. Review of In the evil day, by Peter Temple. Times Literary Supplement, 30 October, p. 21

Commercial films and DVDs

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of the film (in italics)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Directed by...
  • [Film]. or [DVD].
  • Place of distribution: distribution company


American Graffitti (1973) Directed by George Lucas [Film]. Universal City, California: Universal Pictures.


Television programmes - single recorded programme

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • Date of transmission 


The Simpsons (2011) Channel 4, 21 June.


Television programme / series on DVD

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of episode (in inverted commas)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme / series (in italics)
  • Series and episode numbers (if known)
  • Directed by...
  • Written by...
  • Date of original broadcast (if known)
  • [DVD].
  • Place of distribution: distribution company


'Genesis of the Daleks' (2006) Doctor Who, episode 1. Directed by David Maloney. Written by Terry Nation. First broadcast 1975 [DVD]. London: BBC DVD.


Radio programme - a single broadcast

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • Date of transmission 


Thinking Allowed (2011) BBC Radio 4, 22 June.


Liner notes - CD, DVD, Vinyl and cassette

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of liner notes / text (in inverted commas)
  • In Title of recording (in italics)
  • [CD. DVD, vinyl, cassette liner notes]
  • Place of distribution: distribution company


Thrills, A. (1997) 'What a catalyst he turned out to be' in The very best of The Jam [CD liner notes]. London: Polydor.


Music or spoken recordings

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Artist
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Title of recording (in italics)
  • Type of recording [CD, LP etc].
  • Place of distribution: distribution company


Elton John (1973) Goodbye Yellow Brick Road [LP]. London: Dick James Music.


Lyrics

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Lyricist
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets) - the original year.
  • Title of song (in italics)
  • Place of distribution: distribution company


Perry, N. and Hardin, C. (1957) Not Fade Away. New York, USA: Southern Music.

Images in books - illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author of the book
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of books (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Page reference of image
  • Type of image (illus. fig. table. logo) 


Fowler, J., Cohen, L and Jarvis, P. (1998) Practical Statistics for Field Biology. 2nd edn. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, p. 64, fig. 


Images in a journal

Citation order - make sure you also include all punctuation marks given in the examples below

  • Author of article
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking word such as and, of, the, for)
  • Issue information, that is, volume(unbracketed) and, where applicable, part number, month or season (all in round brackets)
  • Page reference (using p. for single pages and pp. for multiple pages)
  • Type of image (illus. fig. table. logo) 


Roper, M. (2011) 'Nostalgia as an emotional experience in the Great War', The Historical Journal 54 (2) p. 422, illus.

Printable University of Suffolk Harvard Referencing Guides